What Is a PES Statement?

A PES statement is a part of the formal process that dietitians use in a hospital setting. This business document is essentially a nutrition diagnosis. The PES statement is a structured sentence that describes the specific nutrition problem that the dietitian is responsible for treating and working toward resolving the cause or causes of the problem and the evidence that the problem exists. In other words, it states what the dietitian should do to improve the health and wellness of the patient of concern, making necessary (and sometimes significant) changes to the patient’s nutrition intake, access to safe food, or the patient’s education.

Components Of a PES Statement

Here are the parts of what make a PES statement, along with their explanations:

What Are the Basic Nutrients That Our Body Needs?

Here are the basic nutrients that our body needs in order to maintain a good nutrition level:

Water. Water comprises 45-75 percent of our bodies and is essential for good health. Water is used in a variety of bodily processes and aids in temperature regulation. Blood and other body fluids are mostly water, which aids in the transport of nutrients throughout the body and into and out of cells. The amount of water we require each day varies according to age, activity level, and so on, but a good rule of thumb is to drink 8-10 cups of water per day.Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates serve as our body’s primary source of energy. Blood sugar is the fuel that powers the cells in our bodies. Carbohydrates can be simple (easy to digest) as sugar or complex (difficult to digest) as starch or fiber. We cannot digest fiber, but it is essential for gut health and cholesterol metabolism. It is recommended that carbohydrates account for 45-65 percent of our daily calorie intake. Fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, sugar, honey, and dairy products all contain carbohydrates.Protein. Protein is composed of amino acids, which serve as the building blocks for our tissues. Protein in our diet is used for body tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. If we don’t get enough energy from carbohydrates or fat, we can convert protein into blood glucose to use as energy. Protein can be found in varying amounts in a variety of foods. The best protein sources are meat, dairy, poultry, seafood, beans, peas, nuts, seeds, and dairy products.Fat. Fat is our most concentrated source of energy, providing twice as many calories per gram as carbohydrates. Our bodies use fat to store extra calories for later use. Despite this less desirable function, fats are essential to health in other ways. Fat is used in metabolic processes as part of hormones, to insulate our bodies, and to absorb shock to protect various body parts. Our cell membranes are made of fat, and our brains are approximately 60% fat. Some fats, such as Omega-3s, are essential and must be obtained through our diets. Fats can be found in animal products, dairy foods, and plant oils such as olives, avocados, canola seeds, and coconuts.Vitamins. Vitamins, while required in much smaller amounts than the previous nutrients, are necessary for your body to function. Each vitamin contributes to a different process in your body, such as metabolism, growth and development, or the immune system (among many others). Water-soluble vitamins (B complex vitamins and vitamin C) and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, & K).Minerals. Minerals are elements that are also required for our bodies to function (think of the periodic table from chemistry). Some minerals are used in metabolic processes, while others, such as calcium in our bones and teeth, are used as part of body structures.

Effects Of Proper Nutrition On Our Body

Here are the positive effects that proper nutrition can bring to our body:

It keeps the heart healthy. You can help your heart stay healthy by limiting your intake of fats, sodium, and cholesterol. Trans and saturated fats, in particular, can be harmful to your heart. Add four or five servings of fruits and vegetables to your diet if you want to have a healthy heart. In addition, your diet should include plenty of low-fat dairy and whole grains.It also keeps the mind in a healthy state. The amount of blood that flows to your brain is directly related to how well you eat. You can prevent diseases that affect the mind, such as Alzheimer’s, with proper nutrition. Broccoli, almonds, walnuts, blueberries, raisins, kale, spinach, prunes, raspberries, pecans, cherries, and plums are all good for your brain. These are some examples of foods that will improve your brain’s function.It keeps the teeth and bones healthy. Calcium is the mineral found in our foods that is responsible for the strength of your bones and teeth. Calcium, in addition to providing strength, prevents bone and tooth loss. Calcium is also important in the prevention of osteoporosis. Consider adding calcium-rich foods like yogurt, cheese, milk, broccoli, soy products, fruit juices, and cereals to your diet.It gives us more energy. A healthy diet may aid in your energy levels. Excessive consumption of refined carbohydrates, fats, and sugars can make you tired. You can have more energy by keeping your blood sugar levels stable and eating small meals frequently. Consume vegetables, fruits, and whole grains to help your body get the energy it requires and feel less tired.It helps us manage our weight. To lose weight, consume fewer calories than your body burns on a daily basis. To avoid gaining weight, don’t consume more calories than you burn. Whole grains, lean proteins, vegetables, and fruits can all serve as excellent substitutes for higher-calorie meals. These weight-management foods can also help you avoid diseases or complications like clogged arteries, thyroid dysfunction, and type 2 diabetes.It helps us manage our hunger. You can satisfy and prevent food cravings by including the proper nutrition in your diet. When it comes to binge eating, nutrition is usually a good place to start. You can get the nutrition you need by eating a variety of foods from major food groups. By eating a variety of healthy foods, you discover how these nutrient-dense foods can improve your lifestyle.It helps us have a better immune system. Micronutrients and macronutrients are two types of nutrients that can help boost your immune system. Micronutrients can be found in vitamins and minerals, whereas macronutrients include fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. You can keep your immune system functioning properly by eating a healthy diet and getting the right nutrients.It can manage our emotional health. When you eat a lot of starches and sugar, you may start to feel irritable or sad. These same foods may prevent you from sleeping. The end result is a lack of rest, low energy, and forgetfulness. On the other hand, beans, whole grains, and legumes offer complex carbohydrates that are digested slowly. With complex carbohydrates, you can maintain better blood sugar levels.It helps kids foster their growth. Children require nutrition in order to grow. Children who do not receive adequate nutrition may develop iron deficiency anemia. This is especially true for children that are aged four and under. Your child can develop proper motor skills, correct emotional expressions, a better memory, the ability to learn and pay attention, and handle stress better if they get enough iron.

The Step by Step Process in the Nutrition Care Process

The Nutrition Care Process serves as a systematic approach to providing quality nutrition care. It has four steps, all of which will be explained below:

  • 1. Nutrition Assessment

    Nutrition Assessment is a methodical approach to collecting, categorizing, and synthesizing important and relevant data required to identify nutrition-related problems and their causes. This step also includes reassessment for comparing and re-evaluating data from one interaction to the next, as well as the collection of new data that may lead to new or revised nutrition diagnoses based on the client’s status or situation. It is an ongoing, dynamic process that begins with data collection and continues with reassessment and analysis of the client’s status in relation to accepted standards, recommendations, and/or goals. This is in contrast to nutrition monitoring and evaluation, in which nutrition and dietetics practitioners use the same data to determine changes in client behavior, nutritional status, and the effectiveness of nutrition interventions.

  • 2. Nutrition Diagnosis

    Nutrition Diagnosis is the identification and labeling of an existing nutrition problem or problems by a nutrition and dietetics practitioner that he/she is responsible for treating. Nutritional diagnoses (for example, inconsistency in carbohydrate intake) differ from medical diagnoses (such as diabetes). Nutrition and dietetics practitioners write a PES (Problem, Etiology, Signs and Symptoms) statement to describe each problem, the root causes, and the assessment data that provide evidence for the nutrition diagnosis in order to communicate a nutrition diagnosis.

  • 3. Nutrition Intervention

    Nutrition intervention is a deliberate action designed to change a nutrition-related behavior, Risk Factor, environmental condition, or aspect of health status in order to resolve or improve the identified nutrition diagnosis or nutrition problem. Nutrition interventions are chosen and tailored to the needs of the client through the planning and implementation of appropriate interventions.

    The nutrition diagnosis and its etiology drive the nutrition intervention selection. The nutrition intervention is usually aimed at resolving the nutrition diagnosis by changing or removing the nutrition etiology. It is less frequently aimed at alleviating the signs and symptoms of a nutrition problem or problems. Nutrition intervention goals, ideally developed in collaboration with the client, serve as the foundation for tracking progress and assessing outcomes.

  • 4. Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

    The goal of nutrition monitoring and evaluation is to determine and measure how far the nutrition intervention has progressed and whether the nutrition-related goals/expected outcomes have been met. The goal is to promote more consistency in assessing the effectiveness of nutrition interventions within the dietetics profession. Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation identifies outcomes/indicators that are relevant to the diagnosis, as well as nutrition intervention plans and goals.


Should a PES statement be used every time?

This answer will differ depending on where you work or if you have a private practice. Yes, if your hospital or long-term care facility requires PES statements, you must use them. If you run your own private practice, you have more say in the matter. However, if you bill for insurance, it is worth checking to see if they have formatting preferences that you should adhere to

What is the difference between a PES statement and an ADIME note?

An ADIME (Assessment, Diagnosis, Intervention, and Monitoring/Evaluation) note lists the processes that are used to ensure high-quality nutrition care to patients and clients from nutrition professionals such as registered dietitians. It is used as a means of charting patient progress and to encourage a universal language amongst nutrition professionals. PES Statements, on the other hand, serve as an entire section that can be found on the ADIME note.

What does a Dietitian do?

Dietitians are qualified professionals who can offer expert nutrition and dietary advice. They translate the most recent scientific findings into practical dietary advice. They also provide food and nutrition information, as well as assistance to people seeking to improve their health. In addition to that, they advise on nutrition-related issues. Dietitians can also help people change their diets to manage conditions like diabetes, heart disease, overweight and obesity, cancer, food allergies, and intolerances.

Whenever a PES statement is being written for you, it is important that you take into consideration each and every detail of your nutritional assessment, This is also important when you begin to choose your nutritional diagnosis. It is also critical to ensure that you can treat the nutrition diagnosis or improve its current signs and symptoms. Having an effective PES statement is considered the top standard for communicating and documenting any form of nutrition diagnosis. In this article. examples of a PES statement are available for you to download and use as a reference should you need to make one.