Quota Sampling, PDF

What Is Quota Sampling?

Quota sampling is when researchers pick subjects from subgroups of the population that are not chosen randomly. Researchers use quota sampling when random sampling isn’t possible and want more control over who they choose than other non-probability methods, like convenience sampling. Researchers pick the subgroups they need to reach the goals of their study. Most of the time, quota sampling aims to represent the whole population or to make it easier to compare essential groups in the study. The researchers have to set up these groups so that participants can only fit into one. We call these groups “strata.” Researchers must find out enough about each subject during the project to put them in a suitable stratum. According to data from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics for 107 countries covering 2015–2018, women comprise 33.3% of researchers worldwide.

Benefits of Quota Sampling

In general, quota sampling is viewed as more reliable than other non-probability approaches, such as convenience and snowball sampling. As with every sample technique, quota sampling has both advantages. It is only appropriate for some research projects, especially if, as previously said, you already have access to a large population. However, it is a common method for surveying a representative sample of a community without expending an excessive amount of time, energy, or money. Here is a summary of the primary benefits of quota sampling:

Exact representation of the entire population: Quota sampling is all about taking population proportions into account. Due to the adoption of particular quotas, researchers can avoid over-representation and establish a sample representative of the population under study.Saves time: Using quotas is substantially more efficient than sampling by probability. Contrary to stratified random sampling, quota sampling does not necessitate a sample frame or stringent random sampling techniques.Convenient: Since quota sampling saves time and resources, it is easier to implement than other sample techniques. In addition, evaluating the responses from a quota sample is simpler and typically requires fewer resources.Saves money: Quota sampling can bring you usable findings at a reasonable cost. Consequently, this sampling strategy is typically a cost-effective solution for market research.

When to Use Quota Sampling

Probability sampling techniques, such as simple random sampling, choose more accurately representative samples, but they are typically laborious, time-consuming, and costly. Creating the sampling frame for the whole population is often a roadblock in and of itself. Quota sampling is a good alternative when a study needs more time or money to conduct a random sample. It is a middle-of-the-road approach. Quota sampling is less adequate than random sampling in obtaining representative samples, but it can be more effective than convenience sampling, which accepts all willing participants. Consider quota sampling in situations where convenience sampling could be used, such as internet and social media surveys, questionnaires in shopping malls and other crowded venues, acquaintances, etc. However, rather than accepting all volunteers, you selectively include subgroups to achieve your research objectives effectively.

Despite its objectives, quota sampling remains a non-probability method; as such, it has a more significant potential for bias than probability methods. The researcher’s deliberate selection of subjects, typically based on convenience, leaves room for discrimination. As a result, the sample results are less generalizable to the population. A quota sample is ideal for comprehensively understanding ideas, issues, situations, and ways of thinking, especially when quick replies are required!

Types of Sampling Methods

Although sampling is easiest to grasp when considering a vast population, it makes sense to employ sampling methods in all sorts and sizes of investigations. Ultimately, if you can cut the time and money required to conduct a study, why wouldn’t you? And because sampling enables researchers to study more significant target populations with the same resources they would use for smaller people, it significantly expands the scope of research. There are numerous probability sampling techniques to investigate and evaluate. Here are some of the most popular alternatives.

1. Simple Random Sampling

In simple random sampling, every element in the people has an equal chance of being chosen as part of the sample. It is comparable to selecting a name from a hat. Anonymizing the population — for example, by assigning each item or person a number and selecting numbers randomly — enables simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is simple and inexpensive because it eliminates all possibilities of bias in the sampling process. However, it provides no control for the researcher and may result in a selection of unrepresentative categories by chance.

2. Systematic sampling

In systematic sampling, also known as frequent clustering, random selection applies exclusively to the first item selected. Then, a rule is used to determine every nth object or person. Although there is an element of randomness, the researcher can control the interval at which things are chosen, ensuring that selections are not crowded together by accident.

3. Stratified sampling

Stratified sampling uses a random selection within groupings that have been designated. It is advantageous when researchers have sufficient knowledge of the target population to stratify it in a way that makes sense for the investigation. For instance, if you were examining the travel habits of a group of people, it could be helpful to distinguish between those who own or have access to a car and those who rely on public transportation. However, stratified sampling raises the dilemma of how to stratify a population, which increases the danger of bias.

4. Cluster sampling

With cluster sampling, clusters are randomly picked instead of individual members of the target population. These may be pre-existing groups, such as residents of particular zip codes or students in a specific academic year. Cluster sampling can be conducted by randomly picking the entire cluster or, in the case of two-stage cluster sampling, by randomly selecting the group and then selecting within the collection.

5. Quota sampling

Like probability-based stratified sampling, this approach establishes a distribution over the target population by designating who should be recruited for a survey based on specific groups or criteria. For instance, your quota may consist of a given number of males and a certain number of females, as well as members of specific age groups or ethnic groups. During the selection process, bias may be introduced; for instance, volunteer bias may skew the sample towards those with free time who are interested in participating. Alternatively, researchers’ selection of categories for quotas may be influenced by bias.

6. Snowball

Snowball sampling or chain-referral sampling is a non-probability sampling technique in which the samples exhibit unusual properties. This is a sampling approach in which existing participants make referrals to recruit samples required for a research project.

How to Find Survey Respondents

The individuals who respond to your survey are crucial. In most instances, the right survey participants can distinguish between a successful and unsuccessful survey. Now, entrepreneurs actively seek customer feedback. However, the majority have yet to learn how to convince individuals to participate in a survey. Now, let’s examine several tactics that will bring you closer to locating the appropriate survey respondents.

1. In-house Human Resources

Do you require verification for the recent modifications you made to the freshly developed mobile application? Do you wish to collect opinions regarding the color scheme of your soon-to-be-launched product? Then, who better serves as key respondents than your employees? In reality, the majority of firms view their employees as potential customers. They are enthusiastic about working for you and eager to support your proposal. You can utilize your internal human resources to gain insight into recent reforms or alterations. Not only will you be able to save time and money, but you will also be able to ensure that your survey provides high-quality data.

2. Website Respondents

For statistical precision, you need respondents who are credible and contextual. Additionally, this accuracy improves as the number of surveys conducted across various groups of survey respondents increases. This comes with a heavy price tag, which may only be affordable for some businesses. Consequently, how can you reach contextual survey respondents within your budget? The straightforward response to this question is website visitors. You can conduct surveys of your website’s visitors while they visit the site to collect highly relevant data. You can collect information regarding your website’s user interface, performance, and the likelihood of people recommending your products/services to others.

3. Online Forums

The internet has allowed people to build communities based on their likes, hobbies, and opinions. People can interact with like-minded individuals, share their experiences, comment, and engage in substantive conversations. This is a fantastic opportunity for your business to engage with your target audience and locate the perfect survey participants. An online forum can be ideal for receiving customer feedback on your products or services.

4. Paid Survey Respondents

If you want to learn how to obtain people to fill out a survey and money is a minor issue, we have a good idea for you. You can get in touch with a market research firm and buy a group of people to talk to. The paid panels are put together after a lot of research on the respondents’ backgrounds. They are made up of relevant people from the desired demographics. The people who get paid to take surveys have agreed to do so for some time. These people are chosen based on your survey, and you can buy them from any well-known company or survey agency.


How are quota sampling and stratified random?

Quota sampling differs from stratified sampling because individuals within each stratum are selected at random in stratified sampling. Quota sampling produces a representative age distribution, but it is not random because the sampling frame is unknown.

What is another name for quota sampling?

The non-probability version of stratified sampling is quota sampling. Stratified sampling involves dividing a population into subsets that share a trait, such as gender.

What is quota sampling vs. purposive sampling?

In quota sampling, a research sample comprises variables with specified characteristics or features. In contrast, purposive sampling relies solely on the researcher’s expertise and discretion.

In this article, we looked at the idea of quota sampling and concluded that it is best used when a researcher wants to save money and only has little time to study. Also, quota sampling works best when it is used to represent a large group of people. The researcher can choose a sample group representative of the whole population, use that group for the survey, and then apply the results to the entire population.