What Is an Income and Expense Statement?

The income statement, related to the profit and loss statement, summarizes all revenue and expense accounts during a specific time. This financial statement indicates the amount of money that the business will earn after all expenses are deducted. An income statement does not disclose concealed difficulties, such as insufficient cash flow. According to a survey conducted by the United States Bank, 82% of business failures result from ineffective cash flow management or a lack of awareness of how cash flow affects the organization. Cash flow is crucial because it is your business’s lifeline. Also, income statements are read from top to bottom and summarize a company’s earnings and expenses over time.

Benefits of Income Statements

The income and expense statement provides a summary of revenue and expenses generated by operational and non-operating operations. When these numbers are compared, it is possible to determine if a net profit or loss happened during the period under consideration. Income statements are beneficial for businesses of all sizes. Also, certain circumstances in which an income statement may prove more effort than it is worth. To summarize, these are the advantages of income statements.

It provides an overview of the company’s revenue: One of the critical benefits of the income statement is that its information is directly tied to the organization’s earnings. It is a comprehensive document that walks readers through all the revenues and expenses incurred throughout the review period. It encompasses all aspects of business, including taxes, costs, and interest payments. There is no better document for examining the business’s comprehensive revenue statistics.It facilitates investor analysis: The income statement makes it simple to determine a company’s financial health over a specific time. Certain critical data, such as net income or earnings per share, are provided right on the document, simplifying the investor’s investigation. When earnings per share or net revenues increase, a business is in good health. If not, you can make some judgments about why.Monitors the company’s performance: The income statement provides a snapshot of the company’s total profitability. Profitable businesses are typically doing something right. If not, they may be doing something incorrectly. When you examine income statements over a lengthy time, you may begin to track the company’s overall performance. Multiple accounts that are compared mitigate some of the document’s shortcomings by allowing you to identify trends and eliminate one-time expenditures that could influence the data.It can be used as a forecasting tool: The income statement works as the foundation for forecasting subsequent accounting periods. These projections are used to create budgets for the business, which may span longer depending on the evaluation. These statements are used to foresee future problems, allowing the company to establish a reaction strategy for the scenarios indicated by the income statement. This simplifies the process of resolving an issue before it becomes too severe.It can significantly streamline your tax reporting requirements: This benefit is available primarily to single proprietors, general partnerships, and small to medium-sized businesses. When combined with personal income taxes, the income statement is a valuable document. It provides you with the information necessary to complete the line items on your taxes. Rather than tallying up each income line or spending, you have a report that already contains this information. Fill in the spaces and, if advised, include the income statement with your submission.It is available in two widely used formats: There are two sorts of income statements that businesses frequently release today. The first is the most typical, the single-step income statement. The single-step format’s design makes it easy to see sales, expenses, and your income computations. The components display differently on the multi-step income statement and their calculations, which ultimately gives the reviewer more data at the tradeoff of being more challenging to comprehend.Identifies future financial prospects: Lenders will analyze the income statement as one of the financial statements. If you require external finance for a project, this statement provides lenders with an overview of your financial health. They will also want to see the company’s economic trends to establish a risk profile. If you can demonstrate steady net revenue growth and profit growth, you’re more likely to be approved for a lending product with a lower interest rate. Otherwise, you will incur excessive interest rates or will be denied funding entirely.It assesses the success or failure of particular budget categories: An income statement is an effective tool for determining a company’s overall health. Also, it can be utilized to ascertain the general health of various departments within the organization. You can use the information contained in this financial document to determine the performance of different budget lines. This information enables you to build a response to specific conditions or to continue pushing forward in the face of improved profits throughout an evaluation period.It enables the identification of prospective competitive advantages: The majority of businesses will generate an income statement, which you may locate online. Generally, public corporations are obligated to provide this information. Generally, private companies and non-profit organizations will make this information available to interested parties or stakeholders. When one income statement is compared to another from a competitor, it becomes feasible to find prospective competitive advantages from which future profits could be earned. Additionally, you may be able to discover areas where the competition outperforms your organization, allowing you to reallocate resources to either increase your competitiveness or explore new methods to be profitable in other areas.

Types of Financial Statements

Every organization requires several critical financial statement documents. It’s not just about complying with regulations or following best practices; they are essential tools for staying on top of your financials. The following are the necessary documents you should be aware of:

Income Statement

A business must keep a careful check on profit and revenue, which the income statement does. An income statement, alternatively referred to as a profit and loss statement, summarizes your business’s revenue and expenses for a specified period. The income statement accounts for payment, losses, and costs to determine whether your company made a profit or fell short of expectations.

Cash Flow Statement

The cash flow statement illustrates how money enters and exits your organization, allowing you to determine how much working capital you have available at any given time. A cash flow statement is critical for determining how soon you could obtain cash if necessary, as it excludes items such as raw materials and purchases bought – but not yet paid for – on credit.

Statement of Change in Equity

This document details the changes to the share capital retained earnings and accumulated reserves of your business. It reflects changes in the owner’s equity for a sole trader. It depicts the changes in the equity of both partners in a partnership. In this case, the statement of change in equity details how the equity stake of each shareholder has changed.

Note to Financial Statements

This is a requirement of IFRS and helps put the information contained in your other financial statement forms into context. For instance, while your balance sheet may indicate your assets, it is in your note to financial statements document that you will detail the nature of those assets. The information contained in this paper is necessary to ensure that you comply with applicable standards and requirements.

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet summarizes three critical items: your asset lists, liabilities, and equity. The balance sheet can be used to determine the current value of a business for the period covered by the statement. Examining your balance sheet might assist you in deciding whether you can meet your financial responsibilities.

How To Write an Income and Expense Statement

To determine the amount of income and expense earned by your organization, you’ll need to create a performance statement in addition to other financial reports. Follow these accounting processes to generate an income and expense statement and report the earnings generated by your small business:

Step 1 Select a time for reporting.

The first stage in compiling an income statement is to determine the period covered by the report. Businesses frequently use annual, quarterly, or monthly income statements. While publicly traded firms are required to prepare quarterly and annual financial statements, small companies are not subjected to the level of control. Monthly income statements can assist you in identifying trends in your revenue and expenses over time. This information can assist you in making business decisions that will improve your company’s efficiency and profitability.

Step 2 Produce a Trial Balance Report.

To construct your business’s income and expense statement, you’ll need to print a basic trial balance report. You may generate the trial balance quickly and conveniently using your cloud-based accounting software. Trial balance reports are internal documents that detail the ending balances of all accounts in the general ledger for a specific reporting period. Balance sheets are a critical component of the income statement because they are how a business gets data for its account balances. It will give you all of the end-of-period balance information necessary to produce an income statement.

Step 3 Determine your revenue.

Following that, you’ll need to determine the total revenue generated by your business during the reporting period. Revenue is defined as the total number of money earned for your services during the reporting time, even if you have not yet collected all payments. Add up all of the revenue line items in your trial balance report and enter the total in the income statement’s revenue line item.

Step 4 Calculate the cost of goods sold and the gross profit margin.

Your cost of goods sold reflects the direct labor, materials, and overhead costs associated with providing your goods or services. Add the cost of goods sold line items on your trial balance report and record the total cost of goods sold just below the revenue line item on the income statement. Subtract the total of your cost of goods sold from the sum of your revenue on your income statement. This computation will provide you with the gross margin or the gross revenue generated by the sale of your goods and services.

Step 5 Calculate your gross, taxable, and net income.

Subtract the gross margin from the amount of selling and administrative expenses. This will calculate your pre-tax income. The sum should be entered at the bottom of the income statement. To compute income tax, multiply your pre-tax income by the applicable state tax rate. This sum should be added to the income statement underneath the pre-tax income figure. Subtract the income tax from the pre-tax income amount to determine your business’s net income. Incorporate the figure into the income statement’s final line item. This will provide you with a broad overview of your business’s performance, allowing you to determine how lucrative you have been.

Step 6 Complete and submit the statement.

To complete your income and expense statement, include a header indicating that it is an income statement. Include information about your business and the reporting period covered by the income statement. After compiling all of the data, you’ve constructed an accurate income statement. This will provide you with a future grasp of income statement definition, significantly benefiting you and your business practice.


What are profit and loss statements, and what do they mean?

The profit and loss statement is a business report that details revenue, costs, and spending for a specific time. The P&L statement, together with the balance sheet and cash flow statement, is one of three financial statements that every public business releases quarterly and annually.

Is a bank statement the same as a statement of account?

The term “bank statement” is also used to refer to an account statement. It demonstrates whether the bank is accountable for the money in an account holder’s account. Bank statements are an excellent resource for account holders who struggle to keep track of their money. Research shows that 1.7 billion individuals worldwide lack access to bank accounts. It’s pretty astounding that 1.7 billion individuals still lack bank accounts simply because they lack access to banks or ATMs in this day and age of sophisticated technology. And to think that this figure had improved significantly over the last three years when more than half a billion individuals gained access to proper banks.

How do you explain financial statements?

A statement of accounts is a record that summarizes all transactions between you and a particular customer over a specified time. Generally, business owners provide funds reports to their consumers to inform them of the balance due on credit sales made during that period.

Investors pay special attention to the Income and Expense Statement because it provides a comprehensive picture of its performance over a certain period. Lenders also consider it while determining the eligibility of a loan. Comparing income and expense statements to prior periods provides valuable insight into the direction a business is taking. Additional financial and expense reports can be found in our article on balance sheets.