What Is a Scientific Research Report?

A scientific research report is a document that contains all the information about experimental investigations. It describes the processes and progress of scientific research, including its results and the state of the research problem. Scientific research reports allow the readers to understand the experiment without implementing and applying it themselves. Additionally, scientific reports enable different groups and individuals the chance to verify the methodology and procedures of experiments to test the validity of results. The scientific research report is also in a formal structure, containing approximately 2500 to 3000 words. Regardless of the subject matter or discipline of the scientific research report, the preparation of the document must represent clear information for scientists and academes to interpret its content. People that read the report have two essential goals. One, they want to gather more information about the topic, and two, they want to know if the findings are legitimate.

According to a study entitled Meta-Research: Why we need to report more than ‘Data were analyzed by t-tests or ANOVA’ published in December 2018, out of the 328 research articles that went through analysis, 277 of them or roughly 84.5 percent uses the t-test, ANOVA, or both. Despite this, 213 papers or 95 percent of studies using ANOVA do not contain any essential information to determine the involved test, while 26.7 percent have no specifications of posthoc tests.

The Elements of a Scientific Research Report

Over the years, scientists and researchers have been using scientific research papers as a formal method of communication, using certain styles, formats, and conventions. It means that valuable information is present in a standardized way that the readers can extract bits of information in the most convenient method. Scientific research reports follow various institutional requirements, and there is no standard on the components that must be available on the scientific report. However, the main goal of the document is to present information as precisely, accurately, and concisely as possible. Below are the most common elements that a reader finds in a scientific research report.

Title or title page: The title page of a scientific research report contains information, including the title of the report, its authors, and the submission date of the document. It is always worth giving much thought to constructing the report title. Develop a statement that gives the reader a specific description of the topic, with possible results without it being lengthy. Keep in mind to refrain from using vague titles. When writing about an author or group of authors, always publish under the same name, and include the address and contact information.Table of contents: Incorporating the table of contents section is appropriate when the scientific research report becomes lengthy, ranging from more than six pages.Abstract or Summary: The purpose of the abstract is to present a self-contained and factual synopsis of the main purpose, results, and conclusions coming from the report. It must be concise while making sense as a standalone section of the report. The abstract must include the research objectives and the scope of the investigation, a reference to the methodology, and a clear summary of the results and conclusion through a brief statement of the outcomes of the experiment. If the scientific research contains a hypothesis, indicate it in the section and state whether the researcher supports or rebuts. Although the abstract is in the first few sections of the scientific research report, write it last after securing the results and conclusions.Introduction: The introduction section provides a summary of the research analysis the researcher plans to implement. The main purpose of the introduction is to place the reader in the shoes of the researcher, placing the research or experiment into an understandable context. The section must indicate the background of the analysis the researcher carries out and a brief review of relevant literature to add to the background by paraphrasing facts and citing sources that support them. It must also state reasons for conducting the study, the hypothesis or research statement, an explanation of various research techniques and their purpose, and the objective statement. Remember that the introduction must not incorporate any information about the results and conclusions of the study.Method: The method section, also known as the Materials and Methods or Experimental, must provide sufficient information about how the researcher carries out the study to enable the audience to evaluate the validity of results. It also holds the description of materials and procedures, about the what and how. It explains the process of preparing the sample group, instrument specifications, and implemented techniques. The section must provide information about sample size, equipment lists, experimental conditions, concentrations, time, and other factors that influence the study or experiment. There needs to be sufficient information for the reader to understand and replicate the necessary steps to accomplish the study. When writing this section of the scientific research report, remember to write in the past tense, using passive voice. Results: The results section provides a clear account of the factual findings of the investigation by utilizing a combination of text, summarized data, and visual figures. If a researcher describes different parts of the study through various subheadings in the method section, it is advisable to use similar subheadings to organize the results. The textual portion of the result section is vital. There must be evident statement representations of the outcome. It is not enough to only present figures and tables without corresponding explanations in the text. The researcher must guide the reader through essential information, bringing out the most vital features. When it comes to numerical data, these must be in tabular form, and some instances are in textual format. Either way, it must be a summarization. Incorporating raw data is appropriate if there are only a handful or if there is a need to discuss the values. Do not include large quantities of raw data in this section. Instead, utilize the appendix. In terms of statistical summaries, it is present in different parts of the result section, together with texts, figure legends, and tables. Figures are graphical representations. However, the figures and tables are different. For figures, like line graphs and charts, legends are at the bottom with labels of Figure 1, 2, 3, and so on, while tables have legends on top of horizontal lines with corresponding labels of Table 1, 2, 3, and so on. The results must include observable results from studies or experiments. It must not contain the expectations of the researcher not present in the findings and references to other research material.Discussion: The primary purpose of the discussion is to take into account the meaning of the results and the new insights they produce for the research questions. It also assesses the results in context with other related literature and considers the limitations of the scientific research for future directions of the study. It is ideal to start the discussion with a short synopsis that summarizes the results. It must also indicate whether the results support or refute the hypothesis. Keep the focus of the discussion solely on the results. Keep the length and depth of discussion in proportion to the entire report and the significance of the results.Conclusion: The conclusion serves as a concise summary of the argument, experiment, or research that relates to the introduction. It must consist of a few sentences reiterating the findings of the scientific experiments or research. Whenever appropriate, the researcher can include suggestions to help improve research methods.Acknowledgments: The acknowledgment section of the scientific research report identifies the individuals or organizations that have significant contributions to execute the study. References: The researcher must indicate a reference list that details all the used resources, with each reference having an in-text citation and each in-text citation traces back to full references in the reference section. Guarantee that all references follow a specific format or style that the publisher requires. Be careful with spelling, especially when citing the names of authors.Appendices: The appendices section must be available for large amounts of data, species lists, detailed laboratory reports, mathematical work, or program listings that enhance the usefulness of the scientific report. Appendices are optional and must only be available when dealing with large numbers of significant information.

How To Write a Scientific Research Report

There are several steps to take to ensure that you produce high-quality and well-written scientific research reports. When writing the scientific report, it must explain essential procedures, raise significant considerations, offer relevant solutions for further scientific research and writing practices. Remember that the scientific report serves as a roadmap for readers about the planning and implementation of the scientific process. Below are the steps to take when writing a scientific research report.

  • 1. Consult with Supervisors Regarding Instructions and Guidelines

    You must be aware of the standard procedures of writing the scientific research report, whether it comes from published guidelines, professor instructions, or funding agency requirements. Start the writing process by researching the expectations of the report you need to write. Most peer-reviewed journals and other publications often have guidelines for authors outlining the content, format, style, and preferences for paper publishing. Funding agencies also provide detailed instructions for their scientific reports, while education institutions hand out assignment templates and course syllabus that details specifics. Whenever there are questions about policy and procedures, the best advice is to ask for directions from concerned entities.

  • 2. Anticipate the Audience of the Report

    Thinking about the possible readers of the report helps you plan on constructing the research according to what they need and anticipate to acquire from the study. A general audience of the report may need particular definitions and explanations of terminologies and theories in comparison to experts. As such, writing descriptions for specific terms help different readers to grasp the study. Since researchers, scientists, practitioners, and other people use the research for material and references after publication, prepare the report to accommodate a wider range of readers.

  • 3. Outline the Content and Structure of the Report

    The research process and the results must be the highlight of the research report. Meaning the content and structure must focus on them. Remember to uphold the standardized policy and procedures when writing the document to report the findings and detail the procedures. The guidelines, instructions, and requirements you follow help you structure the report. Make sure that all the essential components of a scientific report are present in the document, including the introduction, method, results, and discussion. Whatever the required structure is, the outline that you have helps when you start to draft the report, especially if you note the ideal length of each section of the report.

  • 4. Draft the Scientific Report

    Drafting and writing the scientific research report becomes interesting and enjoyable if the researcher prepares a detailed outline. Since it serves as a template for the report, it guarantees that there is an organized structure that demonstrates a logical progression that explains the relevance of the study, including the utilized methods and final results. When writing the entirety of the scientific report, utilize common language and avoid highfalutin words. Be straightforward and work on a clear and concise style in writing with complete sentences.

  • 5. Indicate the References and Citations

    References are an integral part of any scientific research paper, and in-text citations are highly encouraged in the report as you start to draft. If you are uncomfortable about indicating reference notes as you go through the writing process, it is best to immediately write all literature citations in the reference list as soon as you conclude the report. However, you must note all the sources that you include in different sections of the document and incorporate the citations according to the standardized format. Publisher guidelines have specific guidelines in writing the format of the reference. Check the details carefully and thoroughly and finalize your list.

  • 6. Revise, Edit, and Correct as Necessary

    As you complete the document, set the work aside and get back to it at a later time to check for grammatical and spelling errors. Afterward, read the report slowly and carefully, repeating the process several times. Take note of all kinds of mistakes and sections that you can improve. You can also refine the final document by reading the content out loud or seeking the help of colleagues and asking for feedback on the report. Revising, editing, and correcting the content of the scientific research paper may feel time-consuming, but it also helps make the document be in pristine condition.


What are the types of scientific reports?

Scientific reports are prevalent in different industries and sectors. Scientific reports include various publications like original articles, case studies, case reports, scientific commentaries, pictorial essays, editorials, among others.

What is a scientific research paper called?

Another term for a scientific research paper is a journal article.

Why is there a need to write scientific reports?

The principal purpose of writing scientific reports is to communicate the key findings of the research and the reason for their relevance to different fields of study.

Constructing a scientific research report feels like a daunting task. A researcher must equip themselves with the right mindset to begin drafting the document. For starters, knowing about the essential components of the report helps an individual construct each section to contain all the necessary information while keeping in mind to keep the content straightforward and easy to understand. Whenever there are uncertainties in constructing the report, remember to ask for help and advice from respective entities. It is better to be sure rather than go through the entire report with repercussions. Write out a clear and concise report for your scientific research by downloading 13+ SAMPLE Scientific Research Report in PDF | MS Word samples from Sample.net.